Jewish Missions,

The Jewish Remnant,

The Messianic Jewish Revival.

Additional Bibliographies and Biographical Listings:

                An Alphabetical List of the Most Famous Messianic Jews

                Bibliography of the Jewish Remnant

                Bibliography of the Restoration of Jews in the Land

2nd - 6th


Immediately following the Apostolic era of the church, many Jewish followers of the Way of Messiah (Messianic Way) labor for the church sometimes enduring persecution and martyrdom for their faith. Such were Euodius (martyred A.D. 68), Evaristus (1st-2nd cent.), Theophilus (2nd cent.), Hegesippus (140-3rd cent.), Count Joseph (3rd-4th), Epiphanius (303-403) and many others. In the 5th century, Emperor Justinian, from political motives, states that the purpose he has in ordering the synagogues to use the Greek and Latin translations of the Old Testament, and to abstain from Talmudic exegesis, is to lead the Jews to Christianity. Yet bishops do not hesitate to resort to acts of violence to compel the Jews to become Christians. Justice, however, demands recognition of the fact that some popes protected the Jews. Gregory I (540-604) condemns all compulsory baptisms, and by kindliness and rewards tries to win the Jews for the Church. In France, the Jews of Clermont are converted in 576. Although the pope puts no high estimate upon converts gained in this way, he counts upon their descendants. "If we do not win the parents," he said, "we shall have their children"--a remark which experience proved to be ill-founded, especially in Spain. Yet, in each century, works are written to bring about the conversion of the Jews, and rewards are offered to win them to the faith. Among those who, thoroughly convinced, give sincere and faithful allegiance to Jesus Christ, many render such service as to become an honor to the Church.

7th -11th


Archbishop Julian of Toledo (d. 690) whose parents may have been Jewish, is raised Christian with primacy over the entire Iberian peninsula. He helps centralize the Spanish Church in Toledo, presiding over several councils and synods. An odd mixture, he is known as a kind and gentle man, but encourages Spanish kings to deal harshly with Jews. He writes the De comprobatione contra Judeos to refute the Jewish notion, that Jesus could not be the Messiah, as he is not to appear until the sixth millennium of the world. Almost at the same time, Isidore of Seville writes two books to prove the Christian doctrine of faith from the Old Testament, but plants the seed of replacement theology, by pointing out that the Christians now form the true Israel. The doctrine of contempt for the Jew and his eternal damnation spreads.

12th -14th



In England, During the reign of William Rufus, the Jews complain because so many of their number became Christians; the king attempts to force them to return to Judaism in 1100, but the steadfastness of these converts hinder the execution of his threats. About 1200 Richard, Prior of Bermondsey, establishes a hospital of converts, and the Dominicans in Oxford open a similar institution. Henry III (1216-1272) sets apart a special house in London for the reception and care of Jewish converts, for which it soon becomes necessary to organize branch institutions. Under Edward I (1272-1307), 500 Jews receive baptism in the Converts' House, yet in 1290, he banishes 16,500 Jews for usury and coining.

12th -14th



Germany stands in the strongest contrast to England. Here there is no record of any missionary efforts, but only of compulsory baptisms occasioned by the persecutions during the crusades, the invasions of the Tatars, and the Black Death. The ghetto system originally started in Italy precludes the gospel of love from being delivered. Instead the Christian message of intense hatred for the Jews further widens the gap and distrust of the Jews.

12th -14th




Anacletus II, Pope, formerly Petrus, Cardinal Pierleoni (?-1138), was from a famous Italian Jewish Christian family. In France, there are numerous compulsory baptisms, persecutions, and acts of violence. Nicholas of Lyra (1300-40), of Jewish descent, though born a Christian, writes a number of controversial writings against the Jews. Yet, besides him, there is hardly any one who labors for the conversion of the Jews.

12th -14th



Raymond of Pennaforte, general of the Dominicans, introduces the study of the Hebrew language and Talmudic writings in his order, especially for the promotion of missionary activity among the Jews. The Zohar, a mystical commentary of Torah written in medieval Aramaic and Hebrew is published by Moses Ben Shem-Tov de Leon in the 13th century. The enthusiasm felt for the Zohar boosts interest in Kabbalah that emerged from Midrashic speculations in Talmudic, Gnostic, and thaumaturgical sources of the 2nd century. The earliest Christian apologetic on Kabbalah is made by Moshe Sefardi, baptized as Pedro Alfonso in 1106. The work is called "Dialogus" and gives a proof of the Trinity based on the Tetragrammaton. Jewish-Christian disputations start from the 13th century and last until 1490. The most famous is between Nachmanides and a Dominican friar, Pablo Christiani of Montpellier, a Jew by descent, turned Karaite and then Catholic. The latter travels in southern France and elsewhere, preaching and disputing with the Jews in churches and synagogues, and proving the Messiahship and divinity of Jesus from Bible and Talmud. At the same time another Dominican, Raymond Martin, a Christian by birth, but well versed in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic, writes his Pugio fidei contra Mauros et Judaeos (1280) an armory for the disputes of the following times in which he discusses the Tetragrammaton christologically, how name science and sefirotic science support the notion of the Trinity, and calls the Messiah by the Hebrew letter Yod. His disciple Arnaldo Vilanova writes "Allocution super Tetragrammaton" in which he uses gematria in a manner indicating the possible influence of Abraham Abulafia. A former rabbi, respected physician and Christian convert, Abner de Burgos (1270-1348), writes several Hebrew and Spanish books for the conversion of the Jews. Influenced by the Pugio, he produces similar proofs and greatly desires to use this system to convert Jews. Under the name Alfonso de Valladolid he writes "More Zedeq" (Mostrador de justicia). He writes an exposition on Ibn Ezra's commentary on the Ten Commandments and a Concordia egume of Judaism and Christianity.



Just prior to the Spanish Inquisition, Cardinal Pedro de Luna, later Pope Benedict XIII, himself has a debate in Pampeluna with Rabbi Shem Tob ben Shaprut, and takes a lifelong interest in the conversion of the Jews. He is the first patron of Rabbi Solomon Halevi (1353-1435), and interchanges controversial letters with Joshua of Lorca, until they finally become Christian. Solomon Halevi (c. 1351-1435), also known as Pablo de Santa Maria, uses Jewish beliefs about Elijah's coming and the end of the world to promote Christian Kabbalistic beliefs, and Yehoshua Lorki, under the name of Jeronimo de la Santa Fe, provides the Christian view at the Dispute of Tortosa (1413-1414). Among the thousands who at that time enter the Church, frequently, it is true, for secular reasons, or from fear or compulsion, there is a great number of sincere believers in Christ. In the beginning of the fifteenth century the Dominican Vincent Ferrer, who wanders through Italy, France, and Spain as a missioner, develops an astonishing activity in converting Jews. At least 20,500 are said to have been baptized in Castile and Aragon. The reason for such zeal of conversion in Spain is due to the extraordinary power of the Jewish population seen as a threat to the spiritual and material development of Spain. At the end of the century, Jews are expelled from Spain. During the Inquisition, many Jews become converts known as "Marranos" while others are expelled. Neither conversion and nor expulsion protects them as attested by the Inquisition against Marranos and by the case of one Portugal refugee, Rodrigo Lopez, who became Physician to Queen Elizabeth in 16th cent. England.



During the Reformation, the reading of kabbalah continues to spread through many Christian scholars, such as Pico de Mirandola, Reuchlin, gidius of Viterbo, etc., all of whom believed that the book contained proofs of the truth of Christians. In Italy Lorenzo of Brundisium (d. 1619), general of the Capuchins, preaches with great power and traveled through Italy, Hebrew Bible in hand, converting rabbis and laymen. In Rome in 1550 Paul III founds an institute for the conversion of the Jews. Pius V (1504-1572) wins more than a hundred learned and rich Jews for the Church. Many of the innumerable Jewish converts in Italy are received into the nobility of the nation and occupy high positions in the Church.



Ezra Edzard (1629- 1708) of Hamburg, was greatly interested in the conversion of the Jews, and from his own means established a considerable fund for that purpose. His sons Georg and Sebastian continued his work. Similar funds seem to have existed in other cities; as, for example, in Geneva, where a part of the ecclesiastical revenue is still called Fond des proselytes, and again in Darmstadt and Frankfort. Pietism inaugurated systematic missions among the Jews. Among the Pietists, who distinguished themselves by their missionary zeal, Philip Jacob Spener declares it the duty of the government to take care of the conversion of the Jews. The Moravians also took an active part in this work through the aid of Samuel Lieberk who labored thirty years among the Jews.

Early 18th century

Kabbalah has passed into widespread use by hermetic philosophers, neo-pagans and other new religious groups.


A converted rabbi Judah Monis in Boston joins the faculty at Harvard as a Hebrew teacher and in 1730, publishes an appeal to his fellow Jews, called The Truth.


At the suggestion of A. H. Francke, Callenberg founds at Halle, Germany an Institutum Judaicum, which lasts until 1792. The two first missionaries of the Institutum Judaicum are Widmann and Manitius, who from 1730 to 1735 travel through Poland, Bohemia, Germany, Denmark, and England. They are joined by Stephan Schulz, the most important worker of that institute, who extends his travels over the whole of Europe and the Orient.


Through the instrumentality of Lessing, and still more through Moses Mendelssohn, a reform movement takes place among the Jews, starting from Germany and penetrating the East, while in the Romance countries similar results are achieved by the French Revolution. The gradual renunciation of the Talmud on the part of the liberal Jews dates from that time. The immediate result was that large numbers turned to Christianity, especially in Berlin.


In the nineteenth century there is a wave of Jewish conversion to Christianity, As many as 250,000, in Germany, the Austrian Empire and Western Europe. During the Jewish Enlightenment, a recorded total of 3,984 Jews, from the richest and most cultured, are baptized in the eight old Prussian provinces of Germany. Jews are granted civil rights but the bars of anti-Semitism prevent them from rising too high in their chosen fields. Thus, conversion to Christianity, even when done without much religious conviction, is an alluring option. Among the most famous Jewish converts of that century are Heinrich Heine, the family of Karl Marx, Benjamin Disraeli and Gustav Mahler. Some turned into bitter Jew-haters, like Marx who writes a pamphlet," A World Without Jews."


Joseph Frey (1771-1837), a cantor and shochet of Germany, baptized in the Lutheran Church in 1798, who joined the United Brethren non-denominational Berlin Missionary Seminary organizes the London Jews Society. He also founds the London Society for Propagating Christianity among the Jews with Simeon of Cambridge, Marsh of Birmingham and the Preacher Legh Richmond, Lewis Way, a wealthy clergyman, under the patronage of the Duke of Kent, which included both churchmen and dissenters until 1815 , when the latter withdrew from the organization.


B'nei Abraham, the Jews' chapel is founded in Palestine Placec, London.


The Duke of Kent laid the cornerstone of a church for the Jews, to which was added an educational institution for children of proselytes, a Hebrew college for the training of missionaries, and a trade school for proselytes


Lewis Way travels in Holland, Germany, and Russia to better the political and social position of the Jews and to awaken missionary zeal among the Christians. He induced Alexander I of Russia to promise, in 1817, his special protection, as well as lands, to baptized Jews.


Gesellschaft zur Verbreitung des Christentums unter den Juden established in Berlin under the influence of Lewis Way and Tholuck. It has stations in Berlin, Posen, Czernowicz, and Stanislau. Since its existence about 713 baptisms have taken place. Its official organ is the Nathanael. Independently from this missionary society Prof. H. L. Strack manages the Institutum Judaicum, an association formed for the purpose of acquainting theological students at the university with the mission among the Jews.


Rabbi Michael Alexander becomes Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem, founds a training center for Jewish Christian missionaries and a hospital for indigent Jews.


New York City Mission, the oldest of all American missions is established.


Switzerland establishes Verein der Freunde Israels at Basel. It publishes Der Freund Israels and L'Ami d'lsrael.


Baptisms of Jewish converts became no numerous that the founding of a Hebrew-Christian Church in England is planned by the London Society for Propagating Christianity Among the Jews, but cannot be realized. However this society employs 52 missionary stations 199 workers, among them 25 clergymen, 19 physicians, 34 female missionaries, 20 lay missionaries, 35 colporteurs, 58 teachers, and 8 apothecaries. Of these, 82 were converts from Judaism. Of the 52 stations 18 are in England, 3 in Austria, 1 in France, 4 in Germany, 2 in Holland, 1 in Italy, 4 in Rumania, 1 in Russia, 1 in Constantinople; in Asia there are 10 stations, among them Jerusalem with 27 workers; in Africa there are 7 stations. About 5,000 Jews have been baptized by the society since its foundation. Its principal organs are the Jewish Missionary Intelligence and the Jewish Missionary Advocate.


Lichtenstein, Leopold, (1813-1882), Chazan of Habscheim at age 16, in Alsace, comes to faith and has to flee persecution for it. He later becomes a pastor, writer and missionary to New York, and Cincinnati, Ohio.


Five Scottish ministers, among them Andrew A. Bonar, Robert McCheyene, are sent throughout Europe up to Jerusalem to "inquire" about Jews, share Jesus with the Jewish communities they pass through. In response to their mission, famous Hebrew Christians come to the Lord, like Alfred Edersheim, Adolf Saphir, and others.


The Free Church of Scotland Jewish Mission established with about 77 workers and stations at Budapest, Constantinople, Breslau, Tiberias, Safed, and Edinburgh, and publishing the Free Church of Scotland Monthly and The Children's Record.


After a visit with Pope Gregory XVI, Jacob Libermann (1804-1852), son of a rabbi, and renamed Francis Libermann, founds the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary to send apostles to the Negroes of Mauritius, Haiti and Africa.


The Presbyterian Church in Ireland Jewish Mission is established, with stations at Hamburg-Altona (with two ordained missionaries and three colporteurs and Evangelists) and Damascus (with four ordained missionaries and four other laborers). They publish The Missionary Herald of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.


The Church of Scotland Jewish Mission is established with stations in Alexandria, Beirut, Smyrna, Constantinople, and Salonica, and publishing The Church of Scotland Home and Foreign Mission Record


The British Society for the Propagation of the Gospel among the Jews established in London, its membership including representatives of the various dissenting bodies, with twenty-two missionaries and sixteen stations in England, Germany, Austria, Russia, and Turkey, and publishing The Jewish Herald.


Church Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews (Protestant Episcopal) established in New York with stations at New York and Philadelphia and five missionaries, and publishing The Gospel of the Circumcision.


A French Jew, Maria Alphonse Ratisbonne, joins the Roman Catholic Church in 1842 becomes a priest and establishes the Congregation of Our Lady of Sion in Jerusalem with his brother Theodor.


A seminary for missionaries among the Jews, the Westdeutscher Verein fur Israel is established in Cologne. It also has stations at Frankfort, and Strasburg. Its organ is the Missionsblatt des westdeutschen Vereins fr Israel.


Two Jewish twins, the Lemann brothers become priests and work successfully under Pius IX among the Jews of France, writing 150 books and starting orphanages and hospitals. Others in that period emerge as Hebrew Catholics from France, the Carmelite priest Herman Cohen (1821-1871), and David Paul Drach (1791-1868) whose son Paul Augustin Drach writes a large French Bible commentary.


Isidor Loewenthal (Orthodox Jew from Poland) becomes one of the first missionaries in Afghanistan (1855-1864) where he translates the N.T. in Pushtu, the Afghan tongue.


Scandinavia establishes its first society for missions among the Jews: the "Evangelical National Society" with a station in Hamburg.


In Kishinev, Russia Faltin begins successful missionary activity towards Jews.


The Presbyterian Church of England Jewish Mission established with two missionaries in London, one agent in Aleppo and one in Corfu. Henry Aaron Stern (1820-1885), a flaming missionary to the 16,000 Jews of Baghdad, Persia, also to Constantinople, Arabia where the Jews were persecuted, the Crimea, Bulgaria, Roumania, and Abyssinia (Ethiopia) to the Falasha Jews.


Carl Paul Caspari (1814-1892), a Jewish Christian scholar becomes the first chairman of the Committee for the Mission Among Jews.


Henry Aaron Stern suffers torment and imprisonment at the hands of the drunken King Theodorus in Ethiopia from 1863 to 1868.


Isidor Loewenthal is tragically killed accidentally by his servant, just a year after one of his friends, Rev. Levi Janvier, a missionary doctor in India was murdered by a Sikh fanatic. He had spent only seven years in Peshawar, yet in that brief period he had made himself acquainted with the Pushtu, and had translated into this difficult language the whole of the New Testament, and put the same through the press. He had also nearly completed a Pushtu dictionary. He could preach with facility in the Pushtu, Persian, Hindustani and Arabic languages. It has been said that probably no other foreigner at that time in India, had so thorough a knowledge of Asiatic literature and so intimate an acquaintance with the manners and customs of the people of the land and with Oriental politics as he. He had a thorough knowledge of the religious system of the people, and as a disputant with Mohammedans and other religionists he was a master. His library, which filled the four sides of his study, the higher shelves reached by a ladder, contained the rarest books and most ancient manuscripts to be found in any private library in India.


Norwegian Central Committee for Missions to Israel established in 1865 at Christiania, Norway with two missionaries at Galaz and Brasov in Rumania, publishing Missions Blad for Israel.


In Great Britain, the first Hebrew Christian Alliance and Prayer Union for Israel is formed, publishing The Friend of Israel.


Henry Aaron Stern becomes the head of the Home Missions of the London Jews' Society until he dies.


Friends' Mission at Ramallah in Palestine established by English Quakers


Evangelisch-lutherischer Centralverein fr Mission unter Israel established in Leipsic, Germany. It tries to unite all Lutheran missions among the Jews to uniform activity and employs three laborers in Leipsic and in Galicia; its organ is the Saat auf Hoffnung. Saphir, Aaron Adolph, (1831-1891) who becomes a Lutheran, and a missionary to the Jews in Hamburg, later holds four Presbyterian pastorates in England where his expository lectures on the Old Testament became legendary.


Parochial Missions to the Jews at Home and Abroad established under the auspices of the Established Church, laboring chiefly in parishes with a large percentage of Jewish population, having stations in England and Bombay, and publishing Church arid Synagogue


Scandinavia establishes its 2nd society for missions among the Jews: the "Society for Missions among Israel" through Rev. A. Lindstrt in Stockholm, with a home for proselytes at Stockholm and lay missionaries at Budapest and Cracow, publishing Missions Tidning fr Israel.


After 13 years in China, Samuel Isaac Joseph Schereschewsky (1831-1906), a Lithuanian Jew become Episcopal priest, completes the translation of the Bible in Mandarin. Two years later, he becomes the bishop of Shanghai and begins the translation of the Bible into Wenli, another Chinese dialect until his death.


The Mildmay Mission to the Jews is established by John Wilkinson, with stations in Russia, South Africa, Egypt, and Bulgaria, and publishing Trusting and Toiling


The East London Mission to Jews, established with a mission house and orphans' home.


Lutheran Mission to Jews, Norwegian Zionsforeningen for Israelsmissionen blandt norske Lutheranere i Amerika established in Minneapolis, MN with three laborers in Minsk and Odessa in Russia and New York. Many Jews begin to return to their homeland from Russia and Middle East.


In London, the Barbican Mission to the Jews is established.


Professor Delitzsch founds the first Institutum Judaicum in connection with the Evangelisch-lutherischer Centralverein fusion unter Israel.


Isaac Edward Salkinson who first translated classics like Shakespeare and into Modern Hebrew is a Jewish believer who labors in Vienna for thirty years on his magnum opus . a much improved Modern Hebrew version of the N.T. But he dies before its publication (1883)


Joseph Rabinowitz founds and pastors the first Messianic synagogue in modern history called the First Assembly of the Israelites of the New Covenant until his death in 1899, under the auspices of the Mildmay Mission to the Jews who distribute the Slakinson-Ginsburg Hebrew New Testament.


Jewish Mission of the Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other States, established in New York.


American Quakers continue the Friends' Mission at Ramallah in Palestine calling it: Eli and Sibyl Jones Mission


Chicago Hebrew Mission founded by William E. Blackstone with other pastors of the Chicago area on a non-denominational basis to reach the yet unreached 60,000 Jews of Chicago, following the example of the London Mildmay Mission to the Jews. Jewish believers get involved like Rev. S. Berger (Lutheran), Bernhard Angel, Dr. Jacob Freshman (ministering in New York), Rev. David Baron visited it, and Rev. J.W. Marcusson). Its official name was adopted in 1889. Jewish missions would grow and branch out from Chicago to many other cities and even worldwide.


Socit franaise pour l'Evanglisation d'Israel established by Rev. G. Kr with one missionary for France and agencies in Algiers and Oran. Its organ is Le Roi d'lsral.


Chicago Hebrew Mission acquires its name and is oldest incorporated Jewish Mission in America. Meanwhile the conversion of Hermann Warszawiak (1865-), son of the head of the hassidim in Poland, has shaken the Hassidic world on both sides of the Atlantic. He is called "the little Messianic prophet" attracting within two years crowds of 800 on Shabbat days in New York City. He is put in charge of the Home for Persecuted and Inquiring Christian Jews, laboring successfully there in spite of virulent attacks and false testimonies of local Jews, like anti-Missionary A. Benjamin, an agent for the United Hebrew Charities who tries to prove Warzarviak and his teachers are hypocrites and thieves, carrying on their work only that they might get money from rich Christians. The anti-missionary tactics used then are not unlike those used today as shown by the archive records at the Digital Jewish Missions Project


Gospel Mission of the Jews, formerly the Hope of Israel Mission established in New York along with the Brooklyn Christian Mission to the Jews, publishing Our Hope and the Yiddish Hope of Israel.


Jewish Era, organ publication of the Chicago Hebrew Mission is launched.


the World's Gospel Union established in Kansas City, Mo., with eight missionaries, one in Morocco.


Jewish Mission of the Joint Synod of Ohio (Lutheran) is established.


New York City Church Extension and Missionary Society established by Methodists to reach out to the Jews.


David Baron together with C.A.Schonberger founds the Hebrew Christian Testimony to Israel in London


Reformed Presbyterian Mission to the Jews, established in Philadelphia, with three laborers.


Mission of the German Lutheran Synod of the Jews established in Chicago


Rabbi Leopold Cohn founds Brownsville Mission to the Jews in Brooklyn, N.Y. later to become Chosen People Ministries.


First issue of its monthly newsletter The Chosen People comes out.


American Mission to the Jews, established by the Warschaviak.


Messiah Mission of Chicago, established.


The Kilburn Mission to the Jews, established by Ben Oliel, especially for the well-to-do business men of London; also the London City Mission to Jews is established with 16 laborers among the 250,000 foreign Jews in London.


Theodor Herzl publishes The Jewish State, as a solution to the failure of Jewish Assimilation in the Diaspora and the problem of Anti-Semitism in the nations where they are scattered.


First Zionist Congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basel, Switzerland; Zionist Organization founded. David Baron and Jewish missionary to the Jews attended. At one conference, a delegate stood and began to vent his spleen on Christian Jewish missionaries. Herzl's response was to quietly leave the rostrum and come down and seat himself by the side of Mr. Baron and a few of his fellow missionaries. The first wave of Jewish immigration to Palestine (aliyah) is in full swing (1882-1903). The Jerusalem and the East Mission Fund is established by Bishop Blyth of Jerusalem, with 18 assistants in Jerusalem, Beirut, Haifa, Cairo, and Suez. They publish Bible Lands.


Immanuel Mission to the Jews in Cleveland established, publishing Immanuel's Witness


Messiah Mission of Chicago becomes Mission of the Women's Association of the United Presbyterian Church of North America.


A conference of Hebrew Christians led by Mark Levy proposes an alliance of Jewish believers in America.


David Ben-Gurion, born David Yosef Gryn in Poland (1886-1973), as a teen becomes a Zionist, and moves to Haifa. In 1918, he co-publishes Eretz-Yisrael in Yiddish.


A follow-up conference proposes to organize a Hebrew Christian Alliance of America (HCAA)


Resnick, John was ordained as pastor and labored under the Swedish Mission to the Jews in Jassy, Rumania. In 1912 his work became affiliated with the Chicago Hebrew Mission to free him from governmental restrictions.


First Jewish Prophetic Conference sponsored by the Chicago Hebrew Mission.


Arthur Kuldell founds the Hebrew Christian Alliance of America (HCAA)


British Mandate of Palestine begins as Ottoman Empire collapses. The Balfour Declaration promises Palestine as a homeland for the Jews in return for their help in the war.


The HCAA begins publishing the HCA Quarterly with a Yiddish supplement with Dr. Emmanuel Greenbaum as its full-time worker.


Second Jewish Prophetic Conference sponsored by the Chicago Hebrew Mission.


The British Government announces a "White Paper" which virtually abrogates the Balfour Declaration. The Yishuv is thereby restricted to a status of permanent minority. The Arabs are given the right to veto Jewish immigration. Further Jewish settlement is also strangled by land purchase restrictions. In his "Book of Betrayal" Ben-Gurion outrightly rejects these measures and henceforth leads the Zionist movement in its endeavors, irrespective of the British policy.


Third Jewish Prophetic Conference sponsored by the Chicago Hebrew Mission.


The HCAA sends two workers in Palestine to enlist the Zionist cause


Fourth Jewish Prophetic Conference sponsored by the Chicago Hebrew Mission.


Giovanni Baptista Jonas translates New Testament into Hebrew


David Ben-Gurion, as Secretary of the Histadrut (1921-1935), becomes the dominant figure of the political and public life of the Yishuv (Jewish settlement in Palestine)


John Zacker, a Russian Jew, forms the Hebrew Christian Synagogue of Philadelphia, recognized as "the first distinct Jewish Christian house of worship in the United States


Britain and League of Nations grants mandate, a homeland to the Jews for Israel, based on the Balfour Declaration in 1917. Four more waves of immigration of Jews follow until 1948 that begin to transform the economy in the Holy Land. Signs of prosperity spur many Arabs also to come and settle in the land.


The HCAA establishes a Chair of Jewish Studies at the Moody Bible Institute headed by Solomon Birnbaum, later taken over by Dr. Louis Goldberg.


Immanuel's Witness: the quarterly record of the Barbican Mission to the Jews starts publication from London reporting on missions to Europe, Russia, the Near East and Middle East.


Chicago Hebrew Mission sponsors a campaign for Jewish missions in Grand Rapids, MI and begins to support the mission of Marvin E. Duff to the Jews of St. Louis.


A partnership of American and British Hebrew Christian alliances forms in Great Britain called the International Jewish Hebrew Christian Alliance (IJHCA) The number of affiliated alliances grows to 15 but will be reduced to 5 by WWII.


Chicago Hebrew Mission helps Jewish missions get on its feet in Denver, CO.


Chicago Hebrew Mission sponsors a campaign for Jewish missions in Muskegon, MI, Indianapolis and New Orleans.


Chicago Hebrew Mission sponsors a campaign for Jewish missions in Milwaukee, WI


Chicago Hebrew Mission sponsors a campaign for Jewish missions in Cincinnati, Ohio and helps Jewish missions get on its feet to reach out to the 30, 000 Jews of Seattle.


Chicago Hebrew Mission sponsors a campaign for Jewish missions in Muskegon, MI and Akron, Ohio. In Haifa (Israel), a Jewish Christian S. Ostrovsky joins a New Zealander missionary J.W. Clapham and sets up a press to print Christian literature.


Chicago Hebrew Mission sponsors a campaign for Jewish missions in Kansas City, MO.


Leon Levison founds the International Hebrew Christian Alliance (IHCA)


Fifth Jewish Prophetic Conference sponsored by the Chicago Hebrew Mission.


The IHCA has affiliates in 30 countries. Its interest in fighting anti-Semitism begins and will continue with aiding victims of the Holocaust after WWII. One outcome of the growing anti-Semitism, which even existed in churches in countries such as Germany, was a growing interest in establishing separate Hebrew Christian congregations, as a counteractive force


Second Hebrew Christian Church in America established under Presbyterians in Chicago, a Christian worship service with a Jewish "flavor," headed by David Bronstein.


David Ben-Gurion, now Chairman of the Jewish Agency, is troubled by the continuous Arab riots and terrorist attacks on the Jewish population. Ben-Gurion rejects counter-terror and advocates self-restraint. At the same time, he urges to strengthen the Hagana, the Yishuv's defensive forces. The British Peel Commission recommends partition of Palestine into two states, one for the Arabs (later known as The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) and one for the Jews. Ben-Gurion saw this recommendation as "being on a par with the Balfour Declaration, if not even more important. For it is a declaration of a Jewish State in Eretz Israel. After two thousand years of bondage, exile and dependency a mighty Government, which has authority over the land, offers us sovereignty in the Homeland, political independence in our country." Distressed by the plight of European Jewry, Ben-Gurion saw in this proposal a chance to rally massive Aliya into Palestine realizing that Eretz-Israel could be the only solution for the imperiled Jews of Europe.


Jubilee Jewish Prophetic Conference sponsored by the Chicago Hebrew Mission and puts out its Jubilee Issue of the Jewish Era: A Historical Sketch of the Chicago Hebrew Mission 1887-1937. They estimate the Jewish population of that day to be 450,000 in Chicago, 4.5 million in the U.S. and 16 million in the world.


Leopold Cohn's son Joseph Hoffman Cohn takes over the N.Y. Mission until his death in 1953, changing its name to Chosen People Ministries. The headquarters move to North Carolina.


Friends of Israel Gospel Ministry (FOI) is founded to help Jewish people escape the horrors of the Nazi Holocaust and support the rights of the Jewish people to live in their ancient homeland, Palestine.


In the 1940s Johann Harzuge translates NT into Hebrew & Yiddish.


Ben Gurion's appeal to world leaders: "We know - you leaders of Great Britain, the U.S.A., Russia and the other nations fighting Hitler cannot do everything. But there are German citizens in the United States, England, Russia and in other countries. You can insist on their exchange with Jews of Poland and Lithuania and other lands now under the Nazi henchmen! Let all the Jews who can get out of the Nazi hell, and don't close doors in their faces! First take out the children of Israel, the babes who are not yet aware that perhaps they are Jews, and because of that sin they are doomed to extinction. Get them out of the valley of death. Let them enter neutral countries! Let them enter your own countries! Let them enter here, into our Homeland!"


Local Arabs as well as neighboring Arab nations reject the U.N. partition plan of Palestine and pledge to destroy any future Jewish state.


British mandate ends. Ben-Gurion proclaims independence of the State of Israel and leads the Independence War (1948-1949) against neighboring Arab states. Encouraged by Arab leaders promising to purge the land of Jews, 68 % of local Arab residents (630, 000) leave without ever seeing an Israeli soldier. They flee to neighboring Arab states, but are denied entry. The "refugee problem" is born. An equal amount of Jews are expelled from Arab lands, and their properties confiscated, but they are welcomed in Israel augmenting the massive aliyah from Europe (1948-1952). The rebirth of the State of Israel gives an enormous boost to the self-confidence of both Jews and Christians.


HCAA continues to remain somewhat active in the next few decades after World War II. It runs "Haven of Grace," a home for elderly Jewish Christians, from 1953-1966.


Harold Pretlove becomes president of Chosen People Ministries, followed later by Daniel Fuchs, Harold Sevener and Sam Nadler unti Mitch Glazer (current President)


World Congress of Hebrew Christians held during the High Holy Days is the "largest gathering of Jewish believers in the history of the movement" in the United States.


HCAA branch forms in Miami


Father Alexander Men a Jewish Russian Orthodox Priest keeps the underground church in Russia alive through catechizing, Bible-reading-and-praying seminars, and the clandestine reprinting and distribution of both Russian and Western theological literature until 1988 when he can preach openly to the spiritually starved Russian masses.


Rabbi Saul Lieberman of the Conservative Jewish Theological Seminary, widely known for his expertise in the Talmud and rabbinic literature, introduces a lecture by Scholem on Kabbalah with a statement that Kabbalah itself is nonsense, but the study of Kabbalah is scholarship. This view has become popular among many Jews, who view the subject as worthy of study, but who do not accept Kabbalah as teaching literal truths.


Under the auspices of the HCAA, the Young Hebrew Christian Youth Organization (YHCYO)


Six-Day War: Jerusalem is reunited.


In the U.S., The YHCYO becomes the Young Hebrew Christian Alliance (YHCA)


Dan Juster heads the first Hebrew Christian Church of Chicago and renames it Adat Ha Tikveh


Moishe Rosen, an ordained Baptist minister starts a mission in North California under the American Board of Missions to the Jews (ABMJ) which he names Jews for Jesus (JFJ). Many Jewish believers come from the hippie movement.


Hebrew Catholic Bruno Hussar (1911-1996), founds the community of Neve Shalom (Oasis of Peace) in Israel on a barren hilltop near the Latrun Monastery. The community is composed of Jews, Christians and Muslims living in peace based on Isaiah 32:18 and working towards reconciliation in love of their separate traditions and faiths.


Martin Chernoff becomes president of the HCAA.


In June a motion was made to change the name of the HCAA to the Messianic Jewish Alliance of America (MJAA), but a two-thirds majority vote is necessary to effect the name change, and only 62% are received at this time. In August 1973, the ABMJ terminates Rosen's position as he becomes less denomination-oriented and more Jewish-oriented (Messianic); the other eleven members of the mission also resign from the Board in order to stay with JFJ.


Egypt's War of Attrition against Israel climaxes in the Yom Kippur War.


The Lausanne Covenant emerges from the Lausanne congress and gives birth to the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization (LCWE). 


The YHCA becomes the Young Messianic Jewish Alliance of America (YMJAA) and begins to surpass the parent organization in membership and enthusiasm. The upcoming generation wanted to change the styles of worship and evangelism to a more Jewish context.


HCAA renamed Messianic Jewish Alliance of America (MJAA) and the IJHCA becomes the IMJA.


The Messianic Jewish Alliance of Canada (MJAC) is formed as a member organization of the International Messianic Jewish Alliance (IMJA).


The Fellowship of Christian Testimonies to the Jews (FCTJ) officially opposes Messianic Judaism as a "fourth branch of Judaism, and as distinct from mainline Christianity


Jewish Redemptorist Arthur Klyber founds the Remnant of Israel (a community of Jewish Catholics)


Rabbi Haim Levi, a former President and a member of the MJAA and IMJA of Great Britain founds the International Federation of Messianic Jews (IFMJ) in Florida to reach out internationally to the Marranos and Sephardim Jews. Rabbi Levi from Columbia & his wife Rachelle from Greece are both Sephardim. He also founds Etz Chayim Messianic Jewish Institute which trains Messianic Jewish Rabbis from Argentina, Brazil, France, Israel, Mexico, and the USA.


Joel & David Chernoff, sons of Martin Chernoff respectively become presidents of the MJAA between 1979-1987 headquartered in Philadelphia.


Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations (UMJC) is formed by 33 thirty-three congregational leaders from the U.S. and Canada. Its organ is the review Kesher.


The Association of Hebrew Catholics (AHC) is founded by Fr. Elias Friedman, a South African Jew and Holocaust survivor who entered the Catholic Church in 1943, and became a Carmelite monk.


David H. Stern makes "aliyah" in Israel with his family and issues a call in the Messianic Manifesto (p. 228) for all Messianic Jews to also return to the Land of Israel as part of the final ingathering of the remnant in Isaiah 51:11. Mitch Gazer (now head of Chosen People Ministries) responds in Mischpochah Message (Jews for Jesus) qualifies Stern's call by viewing the "Messianic aliyah calling" as secondary to the primary calling of Messianic Jews which is Matt 28: 19-20 and Acts 1:8.


The LCJE forms the Lausanne Consultation on Jewish Evangelism (LCJE). Its organ is the review Miskhan.


Hebrew becomes the official language of Israel.


The Caspari Center for Biblical & Jewish Studies is founded in Jerusalem near Ben Yehuda Street by the Norwegian Church Ministry in Israel. Christians from Norway offer literature and courses to augment the effectiveness of English, Russian, Hebrew and French-speaking missionaries, among the larger missionary communities in Israel. It also opens a library and starts TELEM, a Messianic Training Program patterned after Theological Education by Extension (TEE), using these curricula to arrange study programs in various locations around Israel.


The Messianic Biblical Institute (MBI) and the Joseph Rabbinowitz Graduate School is founded in Maryland by Mike Brown, Dan Juster, Keith Intrater, and Andrew Shishkoff with courses being taught abroad to organize Messianic Jewish ministry and congregations in Russia, Ukraine, and Latin America. Also, in recognition of an unprecedented revival of the Jewish people around the world, the number of Christian and Messianic Jewish ministries with a base in Israel increases while ministries from Israel to the world, such as Out of Zion, First Fruits of Zion, Tikkun, etc.


A kabbalah revival is initiated by the Kabbalah Center, founded by non-Messianic believer Philip Berg in Los Angeles, and run by him and his sons Yehuda and Michael. With a number of branches worldwide, the group has attracted many non-Jews, including entertainment celebrities such as Demi Moore, Madonna, Mick Jagger and Britney Spears. Reactions from organized non- Messianic Jewish groups have been almost uniformly negative, and other critics have accused it of being a "cult". Messianic Jewish groups also view the use of Kabbalah sources as unbiblical and endangering the health of the Messianic Jewish revival. The problem with mixing kabbalah sources and with the revelation of "secret things" is exposed at http://watch.pair.com/HRsages.html.


The International Alliance of Messianic Congregations and Synagogues (IAMCS) formed by the MJAA.


Jews for Jesus' annual budget is approximately $7 million, with ownership of $4.5 million in property and equipment. Today, their budget runs $10.2 million, with a full-time staff of 150 employees running branch offices in nine cities across the United States. There are also branch offices in Toronto, London, Paris, Buenos Aires, and Johannesburg.


David Stern produces the whole Jewish New Testament, with a Commentary. It becomes the standard in many Messianic Jewish congregations.


MJAA forms the Institute for Messianic Rabbinic Training.


On 25 December, 1989, Israel's High Court of Justice reiterates, in the Beresford case, its long-standing position that Christian converts from Judaism are no longer Jews under the "Law of Return", which deals mainly with Jewish immigration. For the purpose of that law, Section 4B defines, a "Jew" as anyone born of a Jewish mother or who has converted and is not a member of another religion. In certain limited cases non-Jews can immigrate under Section 4A(a) of the same law. This is to allow for the immigration of non-Jews who are either the spouses of Jews or who are closely connected by background with the Jewish nation. Non-Jewish immigration proper is dealt with under separate legislation. Christian converts from Judaism who immigrate to Israel as "Jews" are illegal immigrants.


Messianic Times starts as a quarterly publication In Washington, D.C. It includes news from the worldwide Messianic community, Israeli current events and analysis, opinion pieces, book and music reviews, teaching articles and a directory of Messianic Jewish synagogues.


King of Kings College was founded in 1990 as the result of the conviction of several of the national Israeli Pastors who agreed that a national Bible College needed to be raised up to serve the indigenous Israeli Messianic Body. Ilan Zamir becomes the first president in 1991.


Israel's population of Messianic Jews has risen to 4000 due to the wave of immigrants from Russia, Europe, the U.S. and Ethiopia (the Falashas). Also Israeli Messianic Jewish congregations grow and begin to undergo opposition and harassment from ultra-orthodox Jews. The growth of Maoz, Inc. founded by Ar-Sorko Ram in 1979 is an example, the first to legally incorporate a Messianic Congregation (http://www.maozisrael.org/about.asp.)


David Freidman becomes Dean of King of Kings' College and obtains ATA accreditation. The Bachelor in theology curriculum is implemented for the first time.

As a result of an unprecedented awakening in Russia, the "land of the north," Hear O Israel Ministries begins a Messianic Jewish Bible school in St. Petersburg, Russia, in 1994 under the direction of Hear O Israel's leader and Messianic Rabbi, Jonathan Bernis. David Freidman becomes Dean of King of Kings College in Jerusalem and obtains ATA accreditation. The Bachelor in theology curriculum is implemented there for the first time.


Messianic Times' success in profiling the Messianic Jewish revival in the Diaspora and in the land gets a boost when the newspaper moves its office from Washington, D.C. to Israel


David H. Stern produces the Complete Jewish Bible.


Israel celebrates its Jubilee. After 5 defensive wars with its Arab neighbors, its standing with the worldwide community of nations is marred by media bias and many myths, exposed at http://www.conceptwizard.com/info.html, also http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/myths/mftoc.html, and http://www.hum.huji.ac.il/dinur/Internetresources/historyresources/timelines_for_ancient_jewish_his.htm


Akiva Cohen becomes Dean of king of King's College and changes the name to Israel College of the Bible (ICB). The college maintains an interdenominational approach, reflecting the various streams within the Messianic movement and Israeli culture. Courses are in Hebrew, English, Russian & Amharic.





Though previous Israeli governments oppose the right of Return to Messianic Jews, Or Tsion (Light of Zion) is formed to support Messianic Aliyah, the recognition of Messianic Jews as Jews, and the right of return of all Jews irrespective of their religious observance http://www.ortzion.org/MessianicAliyah1.html. At a time when the prevailing sentiment is that Middle East peace is in Yeshua, Sar-Shalom (Jesus the Prince of peace) demonstrated by Messianic Jews & Arabs worshiping together in Messianic congregations, Christian support is also sought for Messianic Aliyah.

In January of 1999, the MJBI (Messianic Jewish Bible Institute) begins its second school in Budapest Hungary; and in September of 1999, the third school begins in Moscow, Russia. Gavriel Gefen, son of Noah and Dr. Gila Garaway gathers 13 Messianic Jewish leaders in Yafo and founds Keren HaShlichut the first Israeli missions agency in modern times to send Messianic Jewish emissaries from Jerusalem to the unreached peoples of the earth. His goal is to restore missions from Israel to the nations. See more at: http://www.shlichut.com/restoring/English%20text-only%20Restoring%20Mission%20from%20IL%20to%20Nations.htm


By the turn of the millennium the IMJA claims 18 national affiliations, such as the Messianic Jewish Alliance of Mexico (AJMM), or the British Messianic Jewish Alliance (BMJA). One is transnational, the Association of Messianic Believers (AMB) created as a non-denominational umbrella uniting both Jewish and Gentile believers with a Messianic vision emphasizing on outreach, education, and disaster relief.


Facts & Myths about Messianic Congregations in Israel, 1998-1999 reports the existence of about 80 such congregations. The estimate of Messianic Jews worldwide is around 100,000. The first Messianic Lebanese-Arab congregation is planted in Nahariya, Israel, a fruit of the Messianic Jewish movement. Joint friendly meetings between Christian Arabs and Messianic Jews are held regularly. Efforts are also made to unify the branches within the Messianic Jewish movement in Israel and those in the Diaspora through conferences, sharing, education and support.

The MJBI links with Har Zion Messianic Congregation in Brazil and Netiviyah Ministries in Jerusalem, Israel, to form the fourth school in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in February of 2000. By the turn of the millennium the IMJA claims 18 national affiliations, such as the Messianic Jewish Alliance of Mexico (AJMM), or the British Messianic Jewish Alliance (BMJA). One is transnational, the Association of Messianic Believers (AMB) created as a non-denominational umbrella uniting both Jewish and Gentile believers with a Messianic vision emphasizing on outreach, education, and disaster relief.


Mark Kinzer & Stuart Dauermann (Hashiveinu) in an effort to develop a more "mature Judaism" come up with the idea of a Messianic Jewish Theological Institute (MJTI) on the campus of Fuller Theological Seminary. John Fisher also offers on the campus of St. Petersburg Theological Seminary operates Netzer David International yeshiva autonomously as a separate school.


The Israel College of the Bible gains additional European accreditation with the EEAA and moves to a larger campus on the streets of the Prophets in the heart of Jerusalem.

In February of 2001, following a successful Hear O Israel festival, another MJBI school begins for Spanish-speakers in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Israel College of the Bible gains additional European accreditation with the EEAA and moves to a larger campus on the streets of the Prophets in the heart of Jerusalem.


Messianic Times becomes bimonthly. Times of the Messiah Ministries begins publishing a four-page news version of The Messianic Times, called Zmanim, meaning The Times for Israel. It launches a supplement In Response that looks at issues of Jewish faith, culture and politics, translated in Russian and distributed in Israel, Eastern Europe, Canada and the United States. The Hebrew version is called BaZman, meaning On Time.


The UMJC establishes this Messianic Jewish Theological Institute (MJTI) to provide advance education and training for those seeking ordination in the Messianic congregations with two programs, School of Jewish Studies (SJS) and Rabbinic Ordination Institute (RO'I) with a faculty of seven. Mark Kinzer is the first appointed President. Lacking a central location, it operates from satellite locations, in Michigan, California & Florida.


A controversial brand of Messianic Judaism the Union of Two House Messianic Congregations formed by Marshall Moshe Yoseph Koniuchowsky of Your Arms to Israel (YATI), changes its name to the Union Of Nazarene Yisraelite Congregations (UONYC). The same trend is evident in James Trimm of the Society of the Advancement of Nazarene Judaism (SANJ), representing his Union of Nazarene Jewish Synagogues (UNJS). James of the UNJS and Moshe of the UONYC in November 2003 release statements of their proposed "Cooperation and Pact." They are now redefining their followers as the common term, NETZARIM or "Nazarenes." They find support from by Batya & Angus Wooten, authors of Who is Israel and founders of the Messianic Israel Alliance ( MIA) who embrace the truth about "both the houses of Israel." Another supporter is Ed Chumney of Hebraic Heritage Ministries International, who hopes his readers will miss the fact that he is really teaching British-Israelism, the Northern Kingdom being the ten lost tribes of Israel which migrated to Europe and then the British Isles.  Monte Judah of Lion & Lamb Ministries, and Norman Willis, author of Nazarene Israel. Association of Independent Messianics (AIM) is formed by Rabbi Mordechai Silver (Etz Chaim in Las Cruces, MN), Mark Huey of TNN Two-House News Network http://www.tnnonline.net/two-housenews/ (Kissimmee, FL). Their organ of publication is the Messianic Observer and their websites are http://www.aim-messianics.org/index.html. They advocate Hebrew Roots, the Two House Teaching (reuniting "Judah" and "Ephraim" the lost tribes), Torah observance for both, one messianic body Israel with equal status of Jews (Judah) and Gentiles (Ephraim). Leaning toward Torah-observance legalism, these fringe groups advocate their own version of the prophesized "full restoration of Israel," claiming the Messianic Jewish current revival as evidence. Yet this interpretation of "revival" is troubled with Kabbalistic speculations that deny the divinity of Yeshua or interpret his messiahship mystically rather than biblically. This approach is disowned by mainstream Messianic Judaism.


Dan Juster among others who strive to help the Messianic Jewish movement reach spiritual maturity, exposes the Ephramaite error of the Nazarene congregations: http://www.hebroots.org/twohousemeeting.htm


American Messianic Fellowship (AMC) is formed by 15 Messianic leaders to oppose what it considers unbiblical trends in the "Messianic Judaism" movement, among them Arnold Fruchtenbaum (Ariel Ministries), Steve Shermett, Sam Nadler, Berry Berger. The goal is to serve the needs of congregations who hold to a "Messiah centered, joyfully Jewish, grace-embracing Messianic Judaism" http://www.messianicassociation.org/about.htm


James Trimm (SANJ) at http://www.nazarene.net/ ) produces a Hebrew Roots New Testament (HRV) through his Society for the Advancement of Nazarene Judaism based on supposed "real Hebrew & Aramaic manuscript evidence," claiming to prove at last the Hebrew/ Aramaic origins of the New testament. Its scholarship http://www.hebraicrootsversion.com/index.html is as controversial as Trimm's so-called doctorate, and kabbalistic leanings. He also advocates the Book of Mormon as a genuine Jewish book. The sale of the HRV targets the Messianic fringe within Messianic Judaism, such as advocates of the Sacred Name (a preoccupation of Kabbalah from its ancient origins). False prophets emerge, some like Michael Rood, claiming falsely to be of Jewish descent, or like Grant Geoffrey who revived the practice of gematria to crack the "hidden" Bible code as revealing the name of Yeshua and the coming Spirit of Elijah to restore the full house of Israel. The problem with mixing kabbalah sources and with the revelation of "secret things" is exposed at http://watch.pair.com/HRsages.html


Israel in Prophecy (1998-), after posting the first Israel in Prophecy Concordance on the web, addresses key issues (Jew-Gentile identity, Israel in History & Prophecy), including this Historical Timeline of the Jewish Remnant and its Revival.