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|Lev 16, 17|
|Lev 23:26-31||[atonement and regeneration. a day of fasting, see Isa 1:18]|
|Zech 8:19||[a hint at other feast days in the Jewish oral tradition; compare Isa 58:1-12. They will be replaced by joy in the presence of the Messiah]|
|Luke 4:16-22||[ compare Isa 61:1-2] (1)|
|Rom 11:25-27||[the prophetic fulfillment of this Feast]|
|Heb 9:6-14||[the Messiah is the fulfillment of this Feast]|
[1 ] ten days after Rosh HaShanah, a day of introspection. The interval is known as Yomim Noraim or The Days of Awe during which acts of repentance have to be completed. Yom Kippur is a day of introspection, a day of "afflicting the soul" on which the sins of the whole past year are to be confessed.
Lev 16 describes the procedures that were necessary to make atonement for both the sins of the priests (including those of the high priest) and the sins of the people. There were two goats to be sacrificed, one as a sin offering to the Lord God and the other for making atonement. The high priest, after having made a scarifice for himself and for the sins of his house, symbolically placed his hands on the head of the live goat (Azazel) for the sins of his people. That goat was then led to a remote place in the desert to show that the sins had been taken away.
In judaism today, atonement is attempted through repentance, prayer and good deeds. Jesus / Yeshua is our atonement, both for Jews and for Gentiles. The prophet Zechariah predicts how this will affect the Jews at the end of time. The Jews, in remembrance of Exod 32:30-32 , are using the greeting "May you be inscribed in the book of life for another year." Believers in the Messiah have the assurance that because Jesus/Yeshua HaMashiah is our covering, our atonement, their names are written in the 'Book of Life' for eternity, never to be blotted out again. Compare Ps 139:16; Dan 12:11; Luke 10:20; Rev 3:5; 20:15.
The word Kippur, atonement, is related to the cognate Hebrew term 'kapparah' (covering). JNTC Heb 9:5 comments as follows: "The lid of the ark was also known as the "mercy seat" (Hebrew kapporet), meaning the physical place where Adonai met the cohen hagadol (High Priest) on Yom-Kippur (Lev 16:2 ) and from which, in his mercy, he forgave the sins of the people of Israel. The Greek word for "mercy seat" is used in the New Testament at only one other place, Rom 3:25 , where it is rendered, "kapparah" ("covering, atonement") : "God put Yeshua forward as the kapparah for sin." Thus the Tabernacle's mercy seat prefigured the eternal mercy seat, Yeshua. (JNTC, 1992, p. 693)
(1) Some Jewish scholars believe that "this event actually took place at a Yom Kippur service." (Kasdan. p. 83)